Nouns - Singular and Plural

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Box 2
Rule: when 'y' follows a consonant, the 'y' changes ti 'I' and 'es' is added, e.g. puppy = puppies, caddy = caddies, candy = candies, ... etc.
Box 3
Rule: when the word ends in 'f' or 'fe', it changes to 'ves' in the plural, e.g. wife = wives, knife = knives.
Box 4
Rule: words which take on an 'en' in the plural, e.g. child = children.
Box 5
Words that form their plural by an internal vowel change.

  • Singular: man, woman, tooth, goose, mouse, louse, foot.
  • Plural: men, women, teeth, geese, mice, lice, feet.

Box 6
Words ending in 'o', which takes 'es' in the plural.

  • Singular: potato, tomato, mango, cargo, hero.
  • Plural: potatoes, tomatoes, mangoes, cargoes, heroes.

Exeptions: words that end in 'o' and just takes an 's' in the plural have italian origin.
Box 7
Words that have more than one plural.

  • Singular: brother, penny, cherub.
  • Plural 1: brothers, pennies, cherubs.
  • Plural 2: brethees' in the plural.
  • n, pence, cherubin.

Box 8
Foreign words ending in 'us' which can either, take 'i' or 'uses' in the plural.

  • Singular: fungus, cactus, hippopotamus, crocus, index.
  • Plural 1: fungi, cacti, hippopotami, croci, indices.
  • Plural2: funguses, catuses, hippopotamuses, crocuces, indexes.

Box 9
Words ending in a sibilant (which is a hissing sound) take 'es' in the plural.

  • Singular: glass, box, bench, gas, church, topaz, fox, class watch.
  • Plural: glasses, boxes, benches, gases, churches, topazes, foxes, classes, watches.

Box 10
Words that remain the same in singular and plural.

  • Singular: fish, sheep, deer, salmon, trout, grouse.
  • Plural: fish, sheep, deer, salmon, trout, grouse.

Box 11
Words that are always used in the singular: bread, flour, earth, peace.
Words that can only be used in the plural (when used as nouns): scissors, trousers, breeches, shears.


Words to be selected from the Morris - Montessori Word List.
This is an individual presentation to be carried out with the child on the table on a tablemat. (Note: full work cycle to be observed).


  1. The Directress introduces the grey heading cards with the words "Singular" and "Plural" to the child.
  2. Then she places the "Singular" heading card on the top left of the tablemat and the "Plural" heading card on the top of the tablemat.
  3. Place the singular and noun cards in a separate stack in front of the child.
  4. The Directress invites the child to read the first 'singular' card, e.g. band.
  5. Then she shows the child where to place the card under the 'Singular' heading card.
  6. Then she invites the child to go through the stack of plural cards to find the matching plural card, i.e. 'bands'. when found, it is then placed under the 'Plural' heading card on the same row as the 'Singular' card placed earlier.
  7. The child repeats the above exercise for the next singular card till all the cards are matched.
  8. When completed, Directress reminds the child about the meaning of singular and plural. 'Singular means one. Plural means more than one'.
  9. Invite the child to examine the difference between the singular and the plural words.
  10. Encourage the child to explain the difference so that the child can see the pattern in all these plural words.

Control Of Error

There is a matching plural card for each new word. The Directress introduces the rule.

Points Of Interest


  • Reinforce the meaning of 'singular' and 'plural'.
  • Demonstrate basic rules for the formation of plurals.
  • Provide reading practice.